"We’ll fly together and make the sky our home. Soon, we’ll create a ring. It will rotate around Earth, driven by gravity … People from our planet will move there, leaving Earth to trees, crops and deer.”
Angels of Revolution.

One of the most radial projects that came out of the studio of Nikolai Ladovskii at the VKhUTEIN in 1930 was Viktor P. Kalmykov’s proposal for a ring-city, ‘Saturny'.


Tantalisingly, there are few details of the project, only one drawing and some notes. Kalmykov’s Saturn was a narrow ring that would encircle the earth at the equator, and at a height only a few kilometres above the surface.

Kalmykov reasoned that a rigid ring would be subjected to equal gravitational forces along its circumference which would keep the city hovering above the earth, a permanent arc in the sky, spinning at the same rate as the ground below.

While not supported from the Earth, a series of towers and pylons would connect the structure back to terra firma for transport and services. Further transport connections back to the ground and other parts of the ring would be provided by a continuous runway for planes and other flying vehicles.

Juttng out from the ring are a number of appendages, either viewing platforms or possibly landing pads, and tantalisingly, a circular form suspended from the underside of the ring. It's fun to speculate on the activities that the denizens of Saturny might have gotten up to - whether Saturny was a place of work or play, of residence or industry. It certainly doesn’t appear to be an escape or retreat from the ground below - much like Kruitikov’s Flying City proposal there is still very much a relationship between what goes on in the air and on the ground. Floating cities were not meant as ivory towers.

Apparently a second ring city was proposed which would circle the earth longitudinally, ie across the poles. Whether this would be at the same circumference as the first ring, or hover above it is unknown. This would have created a zone of intensity at the two points where the two rings intersected. Again we would have to speculate whether this polar-ring rotated along the polar axis to match the rotational velocity of the equatorial ring and earth, or whether it had spin of its own.

The radius of Kalmyjov’s orbital ring is hard to tell from just one drawing, but as a rough estimate at 2km above the earth surface, and with a height and depth of say 100m, over 40 billion m3 of space would be created.(12742000+4= 12744 x PI x 100 x 100) = 400,427,399,626m3

Heather DeHaan, in her book Stalinist City Planning: Professionals, Performance and Power describes another project by Kalmykov at VKhuTEIN, as part of a series of student projects for the city of Nizhnii Novgorod.

Here Kalmykov proposed a parabola-shaped town that wrapped the zoning strips of the OSA’s linear city around the town’s cultural centre. Kalmykov proposed that a variety of housing structures, from bungalows to skyscrapers be placed in a 'stepped' manner, with the tallest buildings at the centre and the bungalows on the outskirts. Like the OSA proposal, his design separated children from adults.

Kalymykov’s proposal was sited in the Avtozavod region of Nizhnii Novgorod (where an automobile factory was built by Ford - but that’s another story).

It’s difficult to know if the Saturny project precedes the Avtozavod proposal, or if any of Kalmykov's ideas for Avtozavod made it into the ring-city plan. Certainly at ground-level of the Saturny drawing are an intriguing array of buildings, from pepper-grinder skyscrapers, domes and pyramidical structures, and stepped ziggurats. Bjarke Ingels could probably have based his whole career on this one image.

Angels of Revolution 2

A model of Kalmykov’s ring-city shows up in the 2014 film Angels of Revolution by Aleksei Fedorchenko, alongside other avant-garde Soviet artworks, as part of a satirical look at the utopian folly at the heart of the Soviet dream. As the notes to the 2016 Russian Film Symposium at the University of Pittsburgh describe it:

"The film explores a paradox at the heart of the revolutionary spatial logic prevalent during the early years of the Soviet Union, articulated by avant-garde architect Moisei Ginzburg as a drive to make “every center a periphery and every periphery a center.” The utopian dream of creating a radically non- hierarchical space relies on an understanding of space as fundamentally hierarchical; Kazym can only be transformed into a center if it—and by extension its Khanty and Nenets residents—are peripheral and, therefore, available to be exoticized, modernized, and civilized."

Angels of Revolution 2


Photographer Elsa Bleda has recently completed her project Fragments (Nightscapes - Johannesburg) - a series of images exploring the South African city by night. It’s a project she began in 2014 and as she puts it herself, it is:

"the result of many years, cold nights, constant explorations, revisits, conversations with a complicated and mysterious city that has many layers.”

It’s a powerful and moving body of work.


The layers of the city depicted in these nocturnes are entwined, meshed, folded and collapsed to represent a city in repose. For the most part people remain out of shot, behind curtains and down alleys, but this is no ghost city, life is indicated by the presence of washing lines, satellite dishes, lit rooms. Life lies in the gaps and holes between structures. Manipulation add a neon glow to give an artificial, ethereal quality to windows and walls, painted with light. The city is illuminated, but for who?







Krutikov 2

In the first post about Georgii Krutikov's City of the Future project of 1928, we looked at his proposal for a floating city, freed from gravity, a paraboloid 'gleaming thimble’ soaring up into the air. But for all of Krutikov’s interest in mobile architecture, the city was essentially static, suspended above a manufacturing and industrial zone on the surface of the earth.

But if the new forms of the city were floating, connection between the aerial parts was facilitated by flying ‘cabins’, capable of travelling from the dwelling units of the residential blocks to other units within the same city; to the ground; or to other floating cities.

krutikov cabin

The teardrop design prefigured Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion car, though without wings it would have been totally unstable. Like the rest of the flying city proposal, there is no indication of how the car flies – how it moves, what powers it, or how it is controlled other than a slender joystick. As a pure utopian vision, Krutikov had little time for details or practicalities.

Kruitkov cabin

The flying cabins of Krutikov's floating city are also redolent of the gyrocopters of Frank Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City, first presented in 1932, but which pre-occupied him for the rest of his life. They also perform a similar role, connecting the disparate elements of a disurbanist city.

Broadacre City

From Floating City to Skycar City

The Dutch practice MVRDV spent some time pre-occupied by the urban possibilities or flying vehicles, and in 2007 published the book Skycar City, based on a design studio conducted with students at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Architecture and Urban Planning. In it, not only are typologies of flying cars explored, but also how a city might be reconfigured based on the spatial freedoms and velocities that the skycars offer.

Skycar City

Further investigations consider parking typologies, city typologies, and inter-city connections. MVRDV, in much of their research projects have taken trends and pushed them as far as then can, as design provocations, and Skycar City is no exception.

“liberated from the confines of the groundplane, the advantages and potentials of a sky-based circulation infrastructure transforms the notion of commuting and moving throughout the city. This paradigm shift also utterly revamps the way in which our cities evolve and grow."

MVRDV’s programmatic approach to design leads them to create 4 archetypes of Skycar City: The Tower City, The Swiss Cheese City, The Coral City and The Garden City, based on a hypothetical city of 5 million inhabitants. Each type has a different approach for the relationship between ‘program’ and ‘pathway’, i.e. built form and network connections, taken to its logical conclusion.

Skycar City

It’s a fascinating book, much more interesting for its urban speculations than its Skkycar designs, MVRDV, like Krutikov and FLW before them, understand that personalised aeronautical vehicles, have the ability to transform society and space.

The term skycar was first coined by the Canadian engineer Paul Moller, who has spent the last 50 years developing a personal VTOL vehicle, with limited success. The latest model, the M400, which can seat 4 people, has so far demonstrated a tethered hovering rather than free flight. Moller's designs are based around 2 or 4 prop engines, housed in a rotating nacelle that can be directed vertically for VTOL and horizontally for conventional flight. Meanwhile, advances in drone technology have developed to a point where they are able to transport a person, with models such as the Ehang 184 working and in use, albeit with a limited range and loading capacity.

Moller Skycar

Ehang 184

As with conventional cars, an abundance of personal vehicles creates issues of parking whenever drivers wish to become pedestrians. Skycar City imagines new typologies for parking structures and even 3-dimensional variations of the drive-in entertainment complex. While Krutikov imagines how the ‘cabins’ detach from the floating habitation units to fly down to earth, there is no consideration of how parking is managed once down on the surface.

Sky-high rush-hour

MVRDV’s explorations of a Skycar City do no consider the notion of anything other than the personal ownership of the skycar: there is no consideration of shared ownership or a ubiquitous taxi service such as Uber. Neither does it consider anything other than spatial separation of home, work and leisure places, with the Skycar as the connecting transport. In Skycar City we will all still commute, pushing our traffic jams and rush hour skywards.

Are the days of owner-drivers over? Uber, Lyft, ride-sharing services such as BlaBlaCar and Via, and self-driving cars might not only enable new modes of personal transportation and shared transport, but could have huge impacts on urban design and transport infrastructure. Flying cars might be another step further. Indeed, Uber themselves are already looking beyond wheeled vehicles to flying cars, having recently hired a NASA engineer to head Uber Elevate, while Google are investing in startups to develop VTOL cars.

There is no doubt that skycars could refigure entirely the layout and infrastructure of the modern city. Making city blocks themselves float, as Kruitikov imagined, might take a few more technological leaps. But his vision might yet take flight.


Arguably, the most radical realisation of a floating city is Georgii Krutikov’s City of the Future project from 1928. In the first of two post about Krutikov, we well examine the City of the Future project (often referred to as the Flying City) in more depth. Part 2 will look at Krutikov’s proposal for a flying car and see where that is leading us.

Krutikov was a student of the Soviet Rationalist Nikolai Ladovskii at VKhUTEIN (the Higher Art and Technical Institute, previously known as VKhUTEMAS, the influential school of architecture in Moscow), and presented the proposal as his final diploma project. That a student project from 1928 is so highly regarded as a pioneering piece of avant garde architectural speculation is a testament to the radical nature of the scheme presented, and also the efforts of reknown Constructivist architectural historian Selim Khan-Magomedov.

Flying City 2

Two perspective images define the project. The first, in white on a dark background, shows a shimmering, upside down paraboloid (containing the residential zone), hovering above a whirlpool industrial zone on the surface. The residential zone consists of series of rings radiating upwards. The image is illusive, evocative, dynamic, with rays of light shooting upwards.

Flying City 3

The second image is a stark contrast to the first. Rendered in dark ink on a white background, it is much more traditional architectural illustration of the residential block. Here eight 5-storey residential towers are arrange around a ring block of a communal housing block.

Flying City 1

Flying City 4

Moving between floating elements, and connecting ground to earth, are flying cabins. Krutikov conceives of these almost as detachable rooms, mobile homes.

Flying City 5

How is the city powered? How does it stay aloft? It is not clear, other than some vague assertions of 'intra-atomic energy' While there is little detail about how the Flying City actually functions, it does not reduce the proposal to pure fantasy. In presentations of precedents and research for the project, Kruitikov went to great lengths to show not only forms of mobile architecture, but also of mans' endeavours to extend horizons, and in the 'Conquest of New Spaces' precedent study, Kruitikov also showed examples of technologies (such as the railway) that were thought fanciful or ridiculous, before achieving mainstream acceptance.

In her excellent essay,
“Two Utopias of Georgia Kruitokov’s ’The City of the Future’”, Alla Vronskaya explores the project within the utopian pedagogical approach at the VKhUTEIN under Ladovskii:

“Rather than being dissociated from reality, 'The City of the Future’, explored reality at a deeper level. What the Architecture Department claimed was the Kruitikov’s ‘Flying City’ was not a science fiction, but a utopia, a word too painful for post-Revolutionary Soviet culture to be pronounced openly.

Vronskaya continues to examine how Krutikov project fitted within two utopian ideals in operation at the time of its conception: "the Romantic, post-revolutionary utopia as a hope and the proto-totalitarian utopia as a rigid social organisation, associated with the economic politics of the First Five-Year Plan."

Krutikov’s proposal oscillates between these utopian paradigms, the two defining images discussed above could be seen as occupying the two positions. The first image, of the spinning ‘gleaming thimble’ contrasts with the more prosaic architectural representation of built form and social organisation in the second, even if we are no closer to understanding how it resists gravity.

The power of Krutikov’s vision, of spinning vortices of light, remains a compelling one:

"Even eighty years later this project lends itself primarily to aesthetic appreciation, its sheer magnitude arousing feelings of awe and incredulity. The pleasure that Krutikov’s project offers is the pleasure in the sublime, a disinterested pleasure in perceiving something immense that transcends a moment and a place"


Kiruna is a city destined to keep being rebuilt.

Due to the threat of collapse to the existing settlement, much of the Swedish city of Kiruna, located deep inside the arctice circle, is to be demolished, and rebuilt two miles away.

New Kiruna

Subsidence caused by the mining activity, by state owned mining company LKAB, which provides the raison d'etre for Kiruna itself, has grown to the extent that the city is no longer safe.

"In a highly unusual case of urbanism, the whole town centre and its surrounding neighbourhoods are to be demolished – and rebuilt at LKAB’s expense two miles away, leaving behind some unaffected areas which will now become the western edge of the new city. The 3,050 homes that would be affected by the impact of the mining – in addition to shops, offices, schools, the city hall and the hospital – will all be bought by LKAB, knocked down and relocated. The process of moving the city will happen in phases, with the majority estimated to be completed by 2040."

I'm intrigued about how the process of moving from one city to another will unfold. Will some refuseniks remain in the old town, awaiting the inevitable slide into the precipice?

New Kiruna

Tantalisingly, rebuilding Kiruna gives the city the chance to start again. Which city, given a chance, wouldn't like to begin over, to fix the mistakes of the past - those annoying bits of leftover infrastructure where things didn't quite connect properly: the quirky changes in material and style between buildings; the misaligned changes in level of the streetscape; that bridge at slightly the wrong angle. New Kiruna, Kiruna 2.0, is a chance to make it right.

New Kiruna

Initial images of the first phase of New Kiruna, or Kiruna 4-Ever, as competition winning practice White Architects called their proposal, show a tightness of urban planning, a playful interlocking of contemporary buildings united by a crisp layer of snow. It’s a look that the old unruly town could never have achieved, while the mine looms over the old town as a portent of doom.

"The first phase of the masterplan is a new civic square, which will be home to Kiruna’s historic clock tower as well as a new travel centre (2018), facilitating connections between old and new, and a new city hall, The Crystal, designed by Henning Larsen Architects (2016). Phase 1 will also comprise a new library (2019) and swimming pool (2016) and by 2021 the Kiruna Church will be carefully demounted and reconstructed on the new

Cities and memory

Kiruna's phased development "will allow the city to ‘crawl’ along a new urban belt to its new home". But what memories will remain of the old Kiruna?

New Kiruna

In Sicily, after the town of Gibellina was destroyed by an earthquake in 1968, the new town of Gibellina Nuova was built 11 kilometers away. The site of the original city was turned into an immense artwork by the artist Alberto Burri, who encased the entire ruined city in concrete, a modern Pompeii. The buildings reduced to rubble, what is preserved are the traces of the old street plan, the craquelure of a painting scaled to the size of a town.

"And yet the Grande Cretto – which has finally been completed earlier this month, twenty years after Burri’s death – stands against the tendency of abandoned cities to be forgotten. What was broken by the quake is fixed in time. Burri’s final cretto is a momento mori because it preserves the energy of destruction."

In Gibellina the memory of the old town is preserved, the streets and buildings trapped in a Brutalist amber. The inhabitants of New Kiruna will only be able to watch as the town of old Kiruna is erased piece by piece, building by building, either by demolition or collapse into the mine workings.

The chance to start again

As a culture, we are drawn to creation myths. The superhero genre is particular creation myth is obsessed with the origin story, a tale that keeps being retold, a chance to retell the same story in a new way. In films, the reboot is a way to retell an old story in a new way. What if we could do the same with our cities? Will Kiruna 2.0 be cleaner, healthier, happier?

New Kiruna

New Kiruna

In Calvino's Invisible Cities, there is the story of Eutropia (Trading Cities 3):

"On the day when Eutropia's inhabitants feel the grip of weariness and no one can bear any longer his job, his relatives, his house and his life, debts, the people he must greet him, then the whole citizenry decides to move to the next city, which is there waiting for them, empty and good as new; there each will take up a new job, a different wife, will see another landscape on opening his window, and will spend his time with different pastimes, friends, gossip."

One can imagine that each new Eutropia is more refined than the last. The city approaches perfection. The video game SimCity allows us to construct a perfect city, and erase the bad parts or begin again if things don't turn out.

Kiruna seems destined to keep being rebuilt:

'It’s not the first time that Kiruna has had to demolish buildings for the mining to increase. “But never on this scale and never the city centre,” Peter Niemi, Kiruna’s municipal chief executive, tells me at the event. If the mining is set to continue, I wonder, is a move of only two miles enough to keep the town safe? “As far as we know,” Eva Ekelund, head of the department of land and development, replies, “but iron is under the new town centre, too.” So could the city move again in another 100 years? “It will be too expensive for LKAB to move the city again,” Peter says simply.'

Kiruna 4-Ever, forever?


Mackie 1

Just finishing at the James Freeman Gallery in Islington is a show by Mackie. You were shit in the 80s, a series of paintings of landscapes and old buildings, each harbouring an iconic work of modern art. Each pair of paintings relates to an artistic argument - between Lucien Freud and Francis Bacon, or between Damien Hirst and David Hockney.

The Hockney painting Portrait of Nick Wilder is reproduced in a removed panel from the disused Pennine Tower at Lancaster Service Station, whilst Hirst’s infamous stuffed shark sits in an isolated country barn.

Whether you find the theme of these artistic feuds fulfilling, or just enjoy the impeccable detail on the paintings, there’s something here for everyone.

Mackie 2

The tower and the cylinder


I recently discovered a series of renderings of a 3D model of Ivan Leonidov's Narkomtiazhprom “People’s Commisariat of Heavy Industry” proposal from 1934, published on EligoVision. This competition for Red Square in Moscow attracted 120 entries from many of the leading architects in the Soviet Union at the time, although no winner was ever appointed, and the project was cancelled in 1935 when the master plan of Moscow was changed.

Leonidov’s design for the Narkomtiazhprom (or NKTP) features three towers on a long, horizontal stepped plinth, with colonnades running the full length, with a low rise glass office wing to the rear,. As a counterpoint to the composition, a small, concave drum sits at the opposite end, like a dwarf cooling tower, designed to be a workers club, I think.



Each of the towers, though of approximately equal height, had a different plan shape, and was to be constructed in a different material. The rectangular tower, features a lattice of exposed steelwork, and suspended terraces at high level constructed of stainless steel. An external elevator is cantilevered away from the main tower. The circular tower, by contrast, is a smooth surface of glazed brick, punctuated by suspended balconies, and its translucent quality would have made it glow at night. The third tower, Y-shaped in plan with curving facades, is given a simple surface treatment of unknown material. In most of the images of the project, this tower is hidden behind the rectangular tower, because it lacks the formal tension that exists between the tower and the cylinder. The three towers were linked by a series of high-level walkways and gantries.




At lower level, Leonidov proposed that the spaces be open to the public, and with a multiplicity of functions to ensure a vibrant, multi-use piece of civic architecture, rather than an insular bureaucratic edifice. Hence the proposal calls for a ‘polyclinic', a kindergarten, a creche, mechanised canteen, a hotel and a library, as well as a number of external spaces - gardens, spectator stands for Red Square parades. Thus we see the Constructivist ideal of the 'social condenser’, the production of equitable space.





Leonidov was perhaps the archetypal Constructivist architect, obsessed with form and not so concerned about the socialist fervent of the revolution. It’s no surprise that he looked so longingly towards the skyscrapers of New York, seeking to strip away their Art Deco façadism in favour of a more industrial aesthetic, although he couldn’t resist the ‘component' flourishes, the suspended gantries and the trellises. But the NKTP was technically unbuildable in the USSR in 1934, and with the approved style of architecture veering towards the monumental classicism of Socialist Realism, stylistically unbuildable also.

Leonidov’s Constructivist stylings became increasingly out of favour:

“I consider that the architecture of the Kremlin and St Basil’s Cathedral should be subordinate to the architecture of the Narkomtiazhprom, and that this building itself must occupy the central place in the city,” wrote Leonidov.

Narkomtiazhprom influence as a building design as a piece of visionary architecture, remains strong, Rem Koolhaas has pretty much based his whole career on it - a programmatic approach to function, the wilful approach to form, the overlaying of disparate elements to create new functional intersections

In Delirious New York, Koolhaas talks about the Needle and the Globe as pair of formal archetypes twinned together in the laboratory of the city, to be repeated throughout the history of the city, from the Worlds Fair of 1853 to the World’s Fair of 1939, via Coney Island's hybrid Globe Tower and beyond.

"In many ways, the history of Manhattanism as a separate, identifiable architecture is a dialectic between these two forms, with the needle wanting to be a globe and the globe trying, from time to time, to turn into a needle."

In Delirious Moscow, an alternative future history of Soviet Architecture, Constructivism lived on in the Soviet space programme. Here a different archetype emerged, the Tower and the Cylinder. The symbiosis of the the cylinder and the tower born at Narkomtiazhprom is reborn in the form of the space rocket and the launch pad.

The formal tension between the structurally expressive tower and the sleek cylinder is one that mirrors a space rocket and its launch tower. The tower provides a support structure for the cylinder, the cylinder provides functional meaning for the tower.


This similarity is most striking in the launch tower and craft of the N1 rocket - the Soviet answer to the Saturn V, and designed to carry cosmonauts to the moon. The cross-laticing which separates each of the main rocket stages of the N1 is remarkably similar to that at the base of the Narkomtiazhprom.


From the brilliant Russian Space Web site, Anatoly Zak describes the launch tower of the N1:

"The final design of the N1 launch pad, featured a special base ring with the outer diameter of 12 meters and internal diameter of nine meters, carrying 24 footholds on which rocket would rest before the liftoff.

A giant pit would descent five stories below the launch pad, in order to absorb raging flame from the rocket's 30 engines. The exhaust then would erupt to the surface via three exit channels radiating away from the pad at the angle of 120 degrees from each other. The underground space between three exhaust channels was filled with service galleries, containing countless support equipment. Special metal pillars held the base ring over the exhaust pit.

On the launch pad, the 105-meter N1 rocket was flanked by a cyclopean service tower, standing 145 meters tall. Nearby lightning towers reached 185 meters above the ground. Shortly before the launch, the tower would be rotated away from the rocket on a special circular rail with the outer diameter of 60 meters. The interfaces between the tower and a rocket were designed to accommodate their movements relative to each other. Tremendous pressure of wind at the altitude of 79 meters above the ground could shift the rocket and the tower as much one meter from each other. The wheels of the tower were designed to withstand 200 tons of vertical pressure and 40 tons of sideway pressure."

A visual history of the future

Published at the end of September 2014, a new report, A Visual History of the Future, commissioned by the British government, offers a remarkable overview of alternative future visions for cities.

Plug In City

There are some bizarre omissions, Wright’s Broadacre City perhaps being the most glaring. Likewise, with Okhitovich’s Red City of The Planet of Communism nowhere to be seen, there is little discussion on the idea of a disurbanised city, only of a dense urban metropolis. This seems short sighted. Only MARS 1942 plan for London and of course Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City offer any sort of urban/rural engagement.

Other important missing projects, off the top of my head, would be OMA’s Exodus proposal, nothing by Superstudio. In a section on floating cities there nothing on Krutikev, no Klucis. Khidekel, not even the more prosaic NASA visualisations that inspired Elysium. But perhaps here I’m nitpicking - a comprehensive volume of alternative city designs would be a major undertaking.

It is odd that some science-fiction cities are represented, Neo-Tokyo from Akira, the Los Angeles of Blade Runner, along with Neill Blomkamp’s District 9, Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, Terry Gilliam’s Brazil. Neuromancer and MegaCity One are name checked. Such a light scratching of the surface of urban visions in film and literature adds little.

But as primer on the history of futuristic urban visions, it's a pretty good start.

Mariner 9

Mariner 9

Mariner 9

In its final few days at the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, Mariner 9 is an installation by video artist Kelly Richardson that offers an eerie glimpse into the future of space exploration.

The installation consists of a panoramic video screen depicting the surface of Mars 200 years in the future, as viewed from the landing site of the hypothetical Mariner 9 mission to the Red Planet. The view is an unsettling one, the landscape littered with a myriad of crashed satellites, dead rovers and marooned landers, the detritus of over 2 centuries of space exploration of Mars.

Despite the sci-fi premise of scene presented, rendered using the same CGI software used by the film and game industries, it is largely devoid of action, with the odd blinking light, brief flickers of movement from a dying rover, and wisps of space dust floating across the Martian surface. Instead the piece becomes a contemplative mediation on the vicissitudes of space exploration, coupled with a sense of loss for past missions, with each new rover rendering its predecessor obsolete. There is also the powerful realisation that, although it is 140 million miles away, humans are already having an environmental impact on Mars

As with all great speculative fictions, it uses the future as a means of talking about the present. As a comment on the stalled space program, Mariner 9 could also be seen as a critique that, rather than manned missions and habitable bases, unmanned robotic landers may remain the limit of our exploration of Mars for centuries to come.

Get the London look

"I left London when I started to feel like a stranger in my own city”

London panorama

I’ve recently published a series of three articles on Medium exploring London at this moment. Moving away from London has given me a different perspective on the city, now I view it from the outside looking in rather than caught in its all consuming bubble. I am still drawn to it, but I can also see it as a city almost spinning out of control, a potential death spiral. I think I’ve been thrown clear by the centrifugal forces.

The first article, London Belongs to Me No More, explores my own separation anxiety, the sense that London is becoming a playground or an investment opportunity for a nomadic global elite.

In London Must Build Upwards or Outwards, I explore two key factors which keep the housing stock in London in such short supply, and thus so overpriced.

Finally, in London’s Secret Sprawl, I look at the legacy of trying to preserve a rural/urban divide between London and the Home Counties, and how the Green Belt has instead of preventing sprawl, engendered a different kind of urbanism.

This London Trilogy completed, I am turning my attention to my new home in The North, its ambivalent relationship with London, its own rural/urban conflicts; its own identity crises.

(Image by Flickr user Jim Crossley)